Phelma Formation 2022

Biophotonic techniques - 5PMBBTE3

  • Number of hours

    • Lectures 9.0
    • Projects 0
    • Tutorials 9.0
    • Internship 0
    • Laboratory works 0


    ECTS 2.0


The course presents the most used biophotonic techniques.
The adopted approach is to see the functioning of the tools presented from an engineering point of view, analysing the most representative technical points and problems. Examples in biology and medicine will be presented and commented when possible.

Contact Davide BUCCI


1 - Introduction
• What is biophotonics?
• Why such a course?
• Examples (pulse oximeter, PDT)
• Prerequisites
• Program
• Bibliography
2 – Fundamentals
• Wavelength ranges
• Optical coherence
• Light/matter interaction (linear and non-linear. Example: SHG imaging of collagen)
• Einstein’s model for absorption and stimulated emission
• Optical gain and population inversion
• Scattering in tissues (elastic, Rayleigh)
• Light-tissue interactions
3 – Light sources and LASERs
• Radiometry and photometry
• Arc Lamps
• LEDs and semiconductors
• General LASER structures
• LASER active media and pumping
• Semiconductor LASERs
• LASER cavities and polarization
• CW and pulsed emission (Gain switching, Q-switching, Mode locking, Cavity dumping)
• Hazards, classes and safety
• Exercises and examples for surgery, hair removal, vascular lesions treatments, refractive surgery
4 – Optical waveguides and fibers
• Structure of an optical fiber
• Slab dielectric waveguide, electromagnetic treatment
• Optical fibers and guided modes, single vs multimode propagation, speckles
• Types of fibers, numerical aperture, losses in silica fibers
• Other kinds of fibers, bundles, endoscopes
• Integrated photonics, integrated biosensors
• Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)
• Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)
• Examples and exercises
5 – Advanced imaging techniques
• Confocal microscopy
• Fluorescence imaging
• FRET: Föster Resonance Energy Transfer
• FLIM: Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging
• STED: Stimulated Emission Depletion
• OCT: Optical Coherence Tomography
• Evanescent sensing in dielectric waveguides
• Examples, exercises


Electromagnetism (propagation of plane waves, Maxwell equations), ray/matter interaction and biology (basics of tissues and physiology).


Semester 9 - The exam is given in english only 

100% written exam (2h)

Additional Information

Semester 9 - This course is given in english only EN

Course list
Curriculum->Engineering degree->Semester 9
Curriculum->Double-Diploma Engineer/Master->Semester 9


– G. Keiser, Biophotonics, Springer, second edition 2022
– P. N. Prasad, Introduction to Biophotonics, Wiley, 2003
– B.E.A. Saleh, M.C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, Wiley, second edition 2007